Key to Pronunciation Symbols

u sofa (sO ´fu ), ite m (I ´tu m), easi ly (E ´zu lE ), canno n (kan´u n), circu s (sÛr´ku s)
a a ct (akt), ba t (bat)
A a pe (A p), fai l (fA l), day (dA )
â ai r (âr), ca re (kâr)
ä a rt (ärt), fa ther (fä´ðu r)
b b ack (bak), lab or (lA ´bu r), cab (kab)
ch ch in (chin), hatch et (hach´u t), rich (rich)
d d ock (dok), lad y (lA ´dE ), sad (sad)
e e nd (end), stea dy (sted´E ), me t (met)
E e ve (E v), clea r (klE r), see (sE )
f f at (fat), ph ase (fA z), cough (kôf)
g g et (get), bigg er (big´u r), tag (tag)
h h and (hand), ah ead (u hed´)
hw wh eel (hwE l), wh ich (hwich)
i i t (it), pi ll (pil), mi rror (mir´u r)
I i ron (I ´u rn), eye (I ), buy er (bI ´u r)
j j am (jam), g ing er (jin´ju r), edg e (ej)
k k it (kit), tack le (tak´u l), c ook (kook)
l l ittl e (lit´u l), holl y (hol´E), pull (pool)
m m an (man), hamm er (ham´u r), climb (klI m)
n n ew (noo), kn own (nO n), winn er (win´u r)
ng sing ing (sing´ing), fin ger (fing´gu r), sang (sang), san k (sangk)
o ho t (hot), bo dy (bod´E )
O o ver (O ´vu r), ho pe (hO p), grow (grO )
ô o rbit (ôr´bit), fa ll (fôl), saw (sô)
oo foo t (foot), wo lf (woolf), pu t (poot), pu re (pyoor)
OO boo t (bOO t), lo se (lOO z), drew (drOO ), true (trOO )
oi oi l (oil), roy al (roi´u l), boy (boi)
ou ou t (out), crow d (kroud), how (hou)
p p ip e (pI p), happ y (hap´E )
r r oad (rO d), appear ed (u pE rd´), car penter (kär´pu ntu r)
s s o (sO ), c ite (sI t), bas te (bA st)
sh sh all (shal), s ure (shOO r), nati on (nA ´shu n)
t t ight (tI t), bett er (bet´u r), t alked (tôkt)
th th in (thin), bath (bath)
ð th en (ðen), fath er (fä´ðu r), bath e (bA ð)
u bu t (but), floo d (flud), so me (sum)
Û cu rl (kÛrl), gi rl (gÛrl), fe rn (fÛrn), wo rm (wÛrm)
v v est (vest), triv ial (triv´E u l), ev e (E v)
w w ax (waks), tw ins (twinz), cow ard (kou´u rd)
y y ou (yOO ), oni on (un´yu n)
z z ipper (zip´u r), eas e (E z), treads (tredz)
zh pleas ure (plezh´u r), roug e (rOO zh)
Foreign Sounds
ö as in French peu (pö), German Goe the (gö´tu )
ü as in French Clu ny (klünE ´)
kh as in German ach (äkh), ich (ikh); Scottish loch (lokh)
N this symbol indicates that the preceding vowel is nasal as in French ci nq (saNk), u n (öN), sa ns (säN), to mbe (tôNb), e n (äN)
Accents and Hyphens
´ primary accent, written after accented vowel or syllable: Nebraska (nu bras´ku ), James Buchanan (byOO ka´nu n)
" secondary accent: Mississippi (mis"u s-sip´E )
ñ dash, replacing obvious portion of pronunciation: hegemony (hijem´u nE, hE ñ, hej´u mO "nE , heg´u ñ)
- hyphen, to prevent ambiguity in syllabification: Erlanger (Ûr´lang-u r), dishearten (dis-här´tu n)